When you are training new classifiers on WebDewey, do you know a quick way to help them identify how many zeros are needed for standard subdivisions in a specific place, and also help them understand why extra zeros are sometimes needed? In most cases, the short answer is to check the Hierarchy box.
First, let’s review the general instructions. At the start of Table 1 is found this instruction (in WebDewey see the Notes box at T1—0 Table 1. Standard Subdivisions):
Never use more than one zero in applying a standard subdivision unless instructed to do so. If more than one zero is needed, the number of zeros is always indicated in the schedules. If the 0 subdivisions of a number in a schedule are used for special purposes, use notation 001-009 for standard subdivisions; if the 00 subdivisions also are used for special purposes, use notation 0001-0009 for standard subdivisions
Similar wording is found in the Introduction (section 8.6). The statement "If more than one zero is needed, the number of zeros is always indicated in the schedule" means that classifiers need to look in the schedules for patterns to copy.
In WebDewey, the Hierarchy box is a good place to look for those patterns because it offers a summary of the subdivisions of a number. For example, here is the Hierarchy box for 616 Diseases:
The pattern to follow for standard subdivisions is clear; two zeros are needed:
616.001-616.009 Standard subdivisions
Why two zeros? The single-zero subdivisions are used for special purposes, as shown in these entries in the Hierarchy box:
616.02 Special topics of diseases
616.04 Special medical conditions
616.07-616.09 Pathology, psychosomatic medicine, case histories
At 616 Diseases is the class-here note: "Class here clinical medicine, evidence-based medicine, internal medicine." Following the pattern for standard subdivisions shown at 616.001-616.009, we class a work of review and exercise for clinical medicine in 616.0076 (616 + 0 + 076 from T1—076 Review and exercise).
Standard subdivisions are not always labeled "standard subdivisions" when they appear in the schedules; classifiers need to be familiar with the standard subdivisions so that they can recognize notation and captions (including variants of captions) from Table 1 when they see them in the Hierarchy box. For example, when classifiers see the following in WebDewey:
They should immediately know that 373.01, 373.02, 373.06, 373.08, and 373.09 are all built with standard subdivisions, because they should recognize T1—01 Philosophy and theory, T1—02 Miscellany, T1—06 Organizations and management, etc. In this Hierarchy box, there are no entries with extra zeros. The pattern shows that a single zero should be used with standard subdivisions. We class a work about urban high schools in 373.091732 (built with 373 + 091 from T1--091 Areas, regions, places in general + 732 from T2--1732 Urban regions).
Another example is the Hierarchy box for 613 Personal health and safety:
Again, there are no entries with extra zeros. The only single-zero subdivision used for special purposes is 613.04 Personal health of people by gender, sex, or age group. Among the standard subdivisions, T1—04 Special topics is intended to be used only for special purposes. It has the note: "Use this subdivision only when it is specifically set forth in the schedules." If T1—04 Special topics is the only single-zero subdivision used for special purposes, the rest of the standard subdivisions do not need extra zeros. The bracketed standard subdivisions—613[.081-613.084] People by gender, sex, or age group—also show the single zero; that record has the do-not-use note: "Do not use; class in 613.04."
The four single-zero subdivisions shown in the Hierarchy box that are marked with orange puzzle pieces are all built with standard subdivisions. The orange puzzle pieces mark these as built numbers that in the print DDC would appear only in the Relative Index; they have index entries serving as captions instead of the standard subdivisions captions that would be used if they were intended to appear in the print schedule:
613.019 Personal health—psychological aspects
613.087 Disabled people—health
Here are the relevant standard subdivisions:
T1—019 Psychological principles
T1—087 People with disabilities and illnesses, gifted people
At 613 Personal health and safety is the standard-subdivisions-are-added note: "Standard subdivisions are added for personal health and safety together, for personal health alone." We class an encyclopedia of personal health in 613.03 (613 + 03 from T1—03 Dictionaries, encyclopedias, concordances).
What if no zero subdivisions are shown in the Hierarchy box? For example, no zero subdivisions of 613.262 Vegetarian diet are shown in the Hierarchy box:
If no zero subdivisions are shown in the Hierarchy box, and there is no add note in the record, then the general rule applies: "Never use more than one zero in applying a standard subdivision unless instructed to do so." There is no add note in the record for 613.262. Hence we class a history of vegetarian diet in 613.26209 (613.262 + 09 from T1—09 History, geographic treatment, biography).
What if there is an add note in the record? Then we don’t know how many zeros are needed until we read the add note. For example, here is the Hierarchy box for 616.723 *Rheumatism:
No zero subdivisions of 616.723 are shown in the Hierarchy box; however, we must consult the Notes box:
The add note is a footnote marked with an asterisk (*):
*Add as instructed under 616.1-616.9
The add note leads to 616.1-616.9 Specific diseases, which has this Hierarchy box:
This hierarchy box first summarizes a large add table, then the other subdivisions under 616.1-616.9. Each add table entry is shown with 616.1-616.9 plus a colon (:) plus the add table notation and its caption, e.g., 616.1-616.9:001 Philosophy and theory. The Hierarchy box shows that standard subdivisions require two zeros because the single-zero notation is used for special purposes. The full add table appears in the Notes box; here is the first part of that large box:
We class an encyclopedia of rheumatology in 616.723003 (616.723 + 0 + 03 from T1—03 Dictionaries, encyclopedias, concordances).
In some cases it is not easy to show patterns for standard subdivisions, and instead special instructions are given in add notes. In those cases—unless there happens to be a built number that shows the pattern—the Hierarchy box is not particularly helpful; classifiers must rely on the add notes. An example can be found at 337.3-337.9 Foreign economic policies and relations of specific jurisdictions and groups of jurisdictions. Here is the Hierarchy box:
Here are the relevant add notes from the Notes box:
Add to base number 337 notation T2—3-T2—9 from Table 2, e.g., economic policy of United Kingdom 337.41; then, for foreign economic relations between two jurisdictions or groups of jurisdictions, add 0* and to the result add notation T2—1-T2—9 from Table 2, e.g., economic relations between United Kingdom and France 337.41044
*Add 00 for standard subdivisions; see instructions at beginning of T1—0
The main add note shows how the single-zero subdivisions are used for a special purpose—to show foreign economic relations between two jurisdictions or groups of jurisdictions—and the footnote marked with an asterisk (*) indicates that when only one jurisdiction or group of jurisdictions is specified and then a standard subdivision is added, two zeros are needed. A history of United States foreign economic relations is classed in 337.73009 (337 + 73 from T2—73 United States + 0 + 09 from T1—09 History, geographic treatment, biography).
At the start of Table 5—at T5—0 Table 5. Ethnic and National Groups in WebDewey—are special instructions. Here are key portions copied from the Notes box:
Except where instructed otherwise, and unless it is redundant, add 0 to the number from this table and to the result add notation T2—1 or T2—3-T2—9 from Table 2 for area in which a group is or was located, e.g., Germans in Brazil T5—31081, but Germans in Germany T5—31; Jews in Germany or Jews from Germany T5—924043. If notation from Table 2 is not added, use 00 for standard subdivisions; see below for complete instructions on using standard subdivisions
. . . .
When Table 5 notation is not followed by 0 plus notation from Table 2, use 00 for standard subdivisions, e.g., periodicals about sociology of Japanese 305.8956005, collected biography of Irish Americans in New York City 974.71004916200922. When Table 5 notation is followed by 0 plus notation from Table 2, however, use 0 for standard subdivisions, e.g., periodicals about sociology of Japanese Americans 305.895607305. (For the purpose of this rule, notation T5—96073 African Americans is treated as Table 5 notation, e.g., periodicals on sociology of African Americans 305.896073005, periodicals on sociology of African Americans in Ohio 305.896073077105)
Classifiers need to be aware of the instructions at the start of Table 5 when adding notation from Table 5, because those instructions are not repeated in the schedules where add notes say to add notation from Table 5.