“If I could work my will, every idiot who goes about with ‘Merry Christmas’ on his lips, should be boiled with his own pudding and buried with a stake of holly through his heart.”
What sort of Scrooge could say such a thing, you ask? Why, Charles Dickens’ Scrooge, of course, the original meanie himself. If you haven’t read A Christmas Carol recently, you should go back to give it a try. I did, and I was surprised by the colloquial vigor of much of the language and the power of the familiar story to move me.
I don’t think I’ve ever seen a stage or screen version of it that has really touched me all that much, but reading it straight through the other night I was astonished to find myself with big tears dripping down my cheeks as I turned the last page. I’ll definitely take the time to read it aloud to my children this season.
A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens and Standiford’s book about it are both classed in 823.8 English fiction, 1837–1899 (built with 82 base number for English literature, as instructed at 820.1–828 Subdivisions of English literature, plus T3A—3 Fiction from Table 3A Subdivisions for Works by or about Individual Authors plus 8 Victorian period, 1837–1899, from period table at 820.1–828 Subdivisions of English literature, as instructed at T3A—31–39 Specific periods).
Themes can be expressed in Dewey literature numbers only for works by or about more than one author, when one can use Table 3B Subdivisions for Works by or about More than One Author and Table 3C Notation to Be Added Where Instructed in Table 3B, 700.4, 791.4, 808–809. For example, The Oxford Book of Christmas Stories is classed in 823.0080334 Collections of English fiction about holidays by more than one author from multiple periods (built with 82 plus T3B—300, as instructed at T3B—3001–3009 Standard subdivisions; collections; history, description, critical appraisal of fiction, plus 80 from add table under T3B—1–8 Specific forms, as instructed at 801–809 Collections displaying specific features or emphasizing specific subjects . . . , plus T3C—334 Holidays, which has the note “Including religious holidays, e.g., Christmas”).
Galician literature is literature written in Galician, an official regional language of Galicia, an autonomous region in northwest Spain. The language is also spoken in the Trás-os-montes region of Portugal. Galician language has been treated in DDC as a dialect of Portuguese, and Galician literature has been classed as Portuguese literature, with use of the period table for Portuguese. Now that we are now preparing to introduce a new number in Table 6 Languages for Galician as a separate language (T6—699 Galician), we need a literary period table for Galician literature.
Since Galician literature has less literary warrant than Portuguese literature, we could give a less detailed period table for Galician than for Portuguese. There would be some advantage, however, to paralleling the Portuguese table to facilitate reclassification.
Most sources speak of a medieval period of Galician literature, ending at various dates, usually between 1400 and 1500 (Fernández del Riego 1978, 17–57; Pena 1992; Tarrío 1994, 19–68). Often they speak of the medieval period as a Galician-Portuguese period, where it may be difficult to distinguish Galician authors from Portuguese authors—yet some authors and works are identified as Galician. The first-of-two rule should lead classifiers to put comprehensive works on medieval Galician and Portuguese literature with Portuguese.
Most sources describe a period of obscurity for Galician literature for the 16th through 18th centuries (Fernández del Riego 1978, 58–74; Tarrío 1994, 71–94). Most sources describe a rebirth or revival in the second half of the 19th century, and some describe a pre-revival starting near the beginning of the 19th century (Fernández del Riego 1978, 75–119; Tarrío 1994, 97–187).
For the 20th century, the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939) and the suppression of Galician during the Franco regime (1939–1975) are important for marking the periods of Galician literature (Tarrío 1994, 191–532). There is a period of exile literature during the Franco regime, based in Latin America, especially Buenos Aires (Maceira Fernández 1995). World War II does not seem important for marking periods of Galician literature.
For literary periods for Galician, we tentatively recommend keeping the same dates as for Portuguese, but not subdividing the 20th century. We recommend putting a class-here note under the 19th century for the period of revival, so that subdivisions may be added for Galician literature of that period. Here is how the proposed entry for Galician literature would look:
here Gallegan literature
the following period table for literature in Galician language from all
countries and continents, for comprehensive works on literature in Galician
1Early period to 1499
here period of revival
*Add to base number as instructed at beginning of Table 3
We are asking for comments on the proposed literary period table. Please reply directly to this blog entry (or alternatively to email@example.com) by December 31, 2008. The comment period has been extended to March 31, 2009.
The Decimal Classification Editorial Policy Committee (EPC)* held Meeting 130 at the Library of Congress November 18-19. The meeting was chaired by Caroline Kent (British Library); Anne Robertson (Australian Committee on Cataloguing) was re-elected vice-chair for another two-year term.
Prior to Meeting 130, EPC held an electronic pre-meeting, and approved updates to historical periods; modernization of the treatment of radio programs, motion pictures, and television programs regardless of method of distribution; and updates to 510 Mathematics. All but the last will be distributed to users in early 2009. EPC also approved, with minor modification, the long-planned updates to groups of people in Table 1 and 305-306—we plan to release the updates in mid-2009.
EPC discussed two sets of updates to Table 2 (Geographic Areas, Historical Periods, Persons)—the conversion of the relocation information and corresponding changes in the reorganization of Scotland, England, and Wales presented in DDC 22; and further updates to the area table for Indonesia. Both sets of changes require additional consultation with in-country groups. EPC approved a final round of updates to Table 4 (Subdivisions of Individual Languages and Language Families, for Individual Literatures, for Specific Literary Forms), Table 5 (Ethnic and National Groups), and Table 6 (Languages)—most of the updates will be distributed to users in mid-2009.
In the schedules, EPC approved updates in the following areas: 001 Knowledge; 002 The book; 150 Psychology; 330 Economics; 390 Customs, etiquette, folklore; 400 Language (including the relocation of computational linguistics);610 Medicine and health; 640 Home and family management; 650 Management and auxiliary services; 660 Chemical engineering & related technologies; 730 Sculpture and related arts; 740 Graphic arts and decorative arts; 750 Painting and paintings; 760 Printmaking and prints; 770.23 Photography as a profession, occupation, hobby; and 790 Recreational and performing arts. EPC also approved updates to the current historical periods in 947 Russia and 968 South Africa. Updates in many of these areas will be released during 2009. EPC reviewed reports on work under way in 340 Law, and discussion papers on 370 Education and 780 Music. We will be seeking advice from users on a number of topics discussed at Meeting 130, including subjects in primary school curricula, language variations, meals, clothing, musical styles, and literary periods for Galician.
EPC reviewed several research initiatives from the OCLC Office of Research and the Dewey editorial team, plus draft guidelines for classifying photographs for the World Digital Library project—we’ll blog about these activities separately in the coming weeks.
On November 18, EPC held a special dinner in honor of assistant editor Winton Matthews and outgoing member Arlene Taylor. Winton has indicated that he plans to retire in early 2009—we’ll share the resolution passed by EPC in his honor later on the occasion of his retirement. Arlene Taylor served on EPC 2000–2008. The committee's resolution honoring Arlene reads in part:
Whereas Arlene Taylor . . . participated in the development and review of Edition 22 (2003) and Abridged Edition 14 (2004) of the Dewey Decimal Classification, and in the publication of ongoing updates in WebDewey and Abridged WebDewey; . . . focused in particular on the needs of students and teachers of the DDC in her comments; . . . contributed “Teaching the Dewey Decimal Classification System” to a special issue of Cataloging & Classification Quarterly devoted to the DDC; . . . presented “Research in Knowledge Organization” at Meeting 116; . . . participated in the EPC planning retreat, “The Future of the Dewey Decimal Classification,” March 15-18, 2004, at OCLC; . . . paid special attention to the treatment of groups of people, and in particular prompted improvements to the caption for people in early adulthood and the terminology for children of unmarried parents (the latter formerly “children born out of wedlock”); . . . Be it resolved that the members of the Decimal Classification Editorial Policy Committee here assembled at the One Hundred Thirtieth Meeting of said committee, the DDC editors, and staff at the Library of Congress Dewey Section and OCLC express to Arlene Taylor their deep gratitude and appreciation for her service and commitment to the Committee and the Classification, their regret that she will no longer be one of their number, and their wishes for her continued success and happiness now that she has retired from the Committee.
*Photo at top of EPC at LC on November 18, 2008—from left to right: Beacher Wiggins (Library of Congress), Vice Chair Anne Robertson (Australian Committee on Cataloguing), Welna van Eeden (University of South Africa), Sandra Singh (University of British Columbia), Lyn McKinney (Billings [MT] Senior High School), EPC Chair Caroline Kent (British Library), Andrea Kappler (Evansville Vanderburgh [IN] Public Library), Arlene Taylor (University of Pittsburgh SIS, retired), David Farris (Library and Archives Canada), and Deborah Rose-Lefmann (Northwestern University).
American novelist Tony Hillerman died recently at age 83. Here is an excerpt from the story in Time:
His numerous best-selling mystery novels about two Navajo policemen, Joe Leaphorn and Jim Chee, portrayed the American Indians of the Southwest with accuracy, color and affection. Hillerman, who died Oct. 26 at 83, was the first popular author to consistently write about the Navajo as fully rounded characters. Over 18 novels, starting with 1970's The Blessing Way, he portrayed the Navajo with good traits and bad, as heroic and villainous, just as novelists had written about people of other races and cultures. He understood that Navajo are not the primitives depicted in old western movies, and he wanted his readers to recognize that they were as complex and sophisticated as the people of any other heritage.
Tony Hillerman won the Edgar Allan Poe Award from the Mystery Writers of America for the Best Novel of the year (Dance Hall of the Dead) in 1974, and in 1991 he received the highest award the organization can bestow: the title Grand Master for lifetime achievement. Yet the honor that brought him greatest pleasure was given to him by the Navajo Tribal Council when they named him a Special Friend of the Dineh (Navajo).
Tony Hillerman's WorldCat Identities page gives an overview of his work, his publication timeline, brief descriptions of his works, notes about which works are most widely held in libraries, and links to bibliographic records in WorldCat.
Individual novels by Tony Hillerman, collections of his fiction, and works about him and his fiction are all classed in 813.54 American fiction—1945–1999 (built with 81, base number for American literature in English as specified at 810.1–818 Subdivisions of American literature in English, plus T3A—3 Fiction, from Table 3A Subdivisions for Works by or about Individual Authors, plus 54 1945–1999 from literary period table under 810.1–818 Subdivisions of American literature in English, as instructed at T3A—31–39 Specific periods). In WebDewey, the LCSH authority headings “Chee, Jim (Fictitious character)” and “Leaphorn, Joe, Lt. (Fictitious character)” are both mapped to 813.54 American fiction—1945–1999. Examples of works by or about Hillerman classed in 813.54 are The Blessing Way, Dance Hall of the Dead, and Tony Hillerman's Navajoland: Hideouts, Haunts, and Havens in the Joe Leaphorn and Jim Chee Mysteries.
Works about American mystery fiction by multiple authors are classed in 813.087209 Mystery fiction—American literature in English—history and criticism (built with 81, base number for American literature in English as specified at 810.1–818 Subdivisions of American literature in English, plus T3B—30872 Detective, mystery, suspense, spy, Gothic fiction, from Table 3B Subdivisions for Works by or about More than One Author, plus 09 History, description, critical appraisal from the add table under T3B—102–107 Specific kinds of poetry, following the footnote instruction at T3B—30872). Notation 09 can be added to 813.0872 for works about mystery fiction because T3B—30872 Detective, mystery, suspense, spy, Gothic fiction has the note: “Subdivisions are added for a combination of two or more topics in heading, for detective fiction alone, for mystery fiction alone, for suspense fiction alone, for spy fiction alone.” By the rule of zero, notation for literary genre at T3B—301–308 Fiction of specific scope and kinds has preference over notation for literary themes, which can be expressed by following the add instructions at T3B—3001–3009 Standard subdivisions; collections; history, description, critical appraisal. Here is the rule of zero as given in the “Dewey Decimal Classification Glossary”: “The rule instructing that subdivisions beginning with zero should be avoided if there is a choice between the 0 subdivision and subdivisions beginning with 1–9 in the same position in the notation. Similarly, subdivisions beginning with 00 should be avoided when there is a choice between 00 and 0.” Notation for literary genre at T3B—301–308 Fiction of specific scope and kinds has preference over T3B—31–39 Fiction of specific periods because the following note at T3B—31–39 overrides the rule of zero: “Class specific scope and kinds from specific periods in T3B—301–308.” Literary themes and literary periods can be expressed at the end of the built number that first expresses literary genre.
Examples of works about multiple American mystery writers, including Tony Hillerman, are American Mystery and Detective Writers and Behind the Mystery: Top Mystery Writers, both classed in 813.08720905 Mystery fiction—American literature in English—history and criticism—20th century (with 813.087209 built as described above, plus 0 from T3C—01–09 Specific periods, as instructed at 09 in the add table under T3B—102–107 Specific kinds of poetry, plus 5 1900-1999 from period table under 810.1-818 Subdivisions of American literature in English, as instructed at T3C—01–09).
Since sometime during the life of DDC 18 (published 1971), there have been two different standard period tables at 810.1-818 Subdivisions of American literature in English:
(1) For Canada; (2) For literature in English language from any part of North America, South America, Hawaii, and geographically associated islands; for comprehensive works on literature in English language from all these areas.
Plans to create separate MARC 21 records for each number in a literary period table drew our attention to the anomaly of two standard period tables. To eliminate that anomaly, the period table for Canadian literature in English has been changed to optional—like the optional period table for Canadian literature in French at 840.1-848 Subdivisions of French literature. The notation in the period table for Canadian literature in English remains unchanged.
LAC continues to use the period table for Canada with “C” to indicate Canada. LC no longer uses the special table for Canada; instead, LC is now applying the standard table for literature in English language from any part of North America to Canadian literature in English. Few authors are affected by the change: the two tables are exactly the same for the 20th and 21st centuries. Only a few Canadian authors are affected by discrepancies in earlier periods—primarily those who began to flourish before 1830 (including Julia Catherine Beckwith Hart, the author of St. Ursula's Convent; her standard number is now 813.2 American fiction in English, 1776-1829).
The Manual entry at the start of Table 3A Subdivisions for Works by or about Individual Authors, which gives much advice about choice of numbers for individual literary authors, says nothing about pseudonyms. In particular, the discussion of literary periods says nothing about pseudonyms. Here is an excerpt from what the Manual entry says about choice of literary period:
Use only one literary period for an author and all of the author's works, including works that may have been published earlier or later than the dates covered by that period. Determine the literary period in accordance with scholarly consensus about when an author flourished. . . . In the absence of scholarly comment, use the weight of bibliographic evidence to determine when an author flourished. For example, class an author who published one novel in 1999, one novel in 2000, one in 2001, and one in 2002 in the literary period beginning with 2000.
The Decimal Classification Division of the Library of Congress (LC) decided that an author who chose to establish a new literary identity with a new pseudonym in the 21st century should have the new literary period notation assigned to that new pseudonym. For example, consider the literary identity of Lauren Kelly, an American writer of “novels of suspense.” Her publication timeline begins in 2004. The Decimal Classification Division has given her fiction the DDC number 813.6 American fiction—2000– . A look at the LC authority record for Kelly shows that Kelly is a pseudonym for Joyce Carol Oates: “Works by this author are entered under the name used in the item. For a listing of other names used by this author, search also under Oates, Joyce Carol, 1938– .”
The publication timeline for Joyce Carol Oates begins in 1963. Oates has written many kinds of fiction, including domestic fiction, love stories, bildungsromans, historical fiction, horror fiction, romans à clef, and biographical fiction, as well as suspense fiction. The Decimal Classification Division has given her fiction the DDC number 813.54 American fiction—1945–1999. A look at the LC authority record for Oates shows that she published under several pseudonyms: “For works of this author entered under other names, search also under Fernandes, 1938– ; Smith, Rosamond, 1938– ; Kelly, Lauren, 1938– .”
We are reconsidering the policy of using a new literary period notation for new pseudonyms. Some have argued that everything by the same real author should be classed in the same literary period. Others have noted that sometimes a work originally published under a pseudonym is later republished under the author’s real name.
We should point out that if the same DDC number is preferred for all names used by the same author, each library can make its own decision about what Cutter number or book number to use: alphabetic arrangement is a local issue with DDC. For example, if DDC number 813.54 American fiction—1945–1999 is used for all fiction by Oates under all her names, some libraries may choose to assign a Cutter number for a work by Kelly based on “Kelly” instead of “Oates.”
We are asking for advice. Should we treat pseudonyms as separate literary identities and assign literary period notation according to when the pseudonym began to flourish? Or should we assign the same literary period notation to all the names under which an author publishes? Please reply directly to this blog entry by August 15, 2008. If you prefer, you may also send comments and suggestions directly to firstname.lastname@example.org.
The Decimal Classification Editorial Policy Committee (EPC)* met at OCLC May 7-9, 2008. EPC approved several adjustments to the proposed overhaul of the treatment of groups of people (including a separate number for intersex people based on feedback from users) plus the implementation plan for the changes. The current plan is to post draft versions of Table 1 and 305-306 on the Dewey web site in August 2008 (with links from the Dewey blog). We will request comments on the content and implementation plan by October 30, 2008—this will permit discussion of user comments at EPC Meeting 130 in November 2008. It is our intention to introduce the changes to the treatment of groups of people throughout the DDC by second quarter calendar year 2009 in WebDewey and Abridged WebDewey. We plan to make final PDFs of Table 1 and 305-306 available on the Dewey web site at the same time the changes are implemented in the web versions of the DDC. The changes introduced in the web versions of the DDC will also appear in the print version of DDC 23 (scheduled to be published in late calendar year 2010).
In addition to the changes to groups of people in Table 1, EPC approved two changes to T1—079 Competition, awards, financial support: clarification of the add instruction from Table 2, and the relocation of festivals from T1—079 to T1—074 Museums, collections, exhibits. Watch this space for more information on these changes. EPC also approved several changes in Table 2 (Geographic Areas, Historical Periods, Persons) for Belgium, South Africa, Sweden, and Clifton Forge, Va. (the last reflects a rare change within administrative units in the U.S.). In Table 3 (Subdivisions for the Arts, for Individual Literatures, for Specific Literary Forms), EPC approved new provisions for autobiographical fiction, biographical fiction, and alternative histories. In Table 6 (Languages),EPC approved updates to Indonesian languages and Galician, plus several miscellaneous updates. Similar changes were made to parallel notation in Table 5 (Ethnic and National Groups).
In the schedules, EPC approved updates in the following areas: 004-006 Computer science, 025.4 Subject analysis and control, 160 Logic, 320 Political science, 364.16 Offenses against property, 398.2 Folk literature, 400 Language, 510 Mathematics, 560-590 Life sciences, 610 Medicine and health, 700 The arts, 800 Literature, and 900 History, geography, and auxiliary disciplines. EPC also reviewed reports on work under way in 200 Religion, 340 Law, and 370 Education. The changes in 364.16, along with other updates to the treatment of criminal offenses, will be the focus of the June New and Changed Entries. We will discuss the proposed updates and open issues in several of the aforementioned schedules in the coming weeks in the Dewey blog—stay tuned.
EPC reviewed several research initiatives from the OCLC Office of Research and the Dewey editorial team. Diane Vizine-Goetz presented current work on a prototype classification web service and pilot terminology services. Dewey editorial team members presented progress reports on several current research projects: machine-assisted derivation of the abridged edition, mixed translation models, identification of the relationship of Relative Index terms to Dewey classes, and improvements to Dewey captions. The team also briefed EPC on our new editorial support system, recent changes to the representation of the DDC in MARC21 formats, and a proposed new approach to the display of relocations and discontinuations in DDC class records. Further, the team gave EPC a progress report on the development of DDC training materials being posted online. There was also a lively discussion on how we might facilitate development and sharing of “Dewey neighborhoods” by Dewey users (see the innovative presentation by the Topeka and Shawnee County Public Library at the March 2008 Public Library Association (PLA) Conference).
EPC will hold a follow-up electronic meeting (Meeting 129A) during June 2008 to resolve some minor open issues from Meeting 129. The group will meet next in person at the Library of Congress in November 2008.
*Photo at top of EPC at OCLC on May 8, 2008—standing from left to right: Lyn McKinney (Billings [MT] Senior High School), Sandra Singh (Vancouver [BC] Public Library), David Farris (Library and Archives Canada), Welna van Eeden (University of South Africa), Andrea Kappler (Evansville Vanderburgh [IN] Public Library) and EPC Chair Caroline Kent (British Library). Seated from left to right: Arlene Taylor (University of Pittsburgh SIS, retired), Vice Chair Anne Robertson (Australian Committee on Cataloguing), and Deborah Rose-Lefmann (Northwestern University).
A blog entry
posted last week gave clues for a crossword puzzle composed of DDC numbers (but
minus decimal points). Did anyone actually do the puzzle? Too hard? Too easy? Want more? Let us hear from you.
The clues are
repeated below, with the intended DDC notation for each clue given in square
brackets; the relationship between the clue and the notation is also given. Built numbers are explained further below.
Superconductivity [621.35; caption] 2 General classification
schemes [025.43; caption: General classification systems] 3 Sami [494.55;
Relative Index: Sami language; built number] 4 Initiation of
business enterprises devoted to literature [806.81; built number] 5 Crossword
puzzles (abridged) [793.73; Including . . . crossword puzzles . . .]
DOWN 1 People with
physical disabilities in technology [604.87; built number] 2 Geography,
history, chronology, persons in the Apocrypha [229.09; built number] 3 Dreams
[154.63; caption] 4 Criminal law
of Venezuela [345.87; built number] 5 Mechanical
wave theory [535.13; caption]
494.55 Sami is built from 494 Uralic languages plus 55 from T6—9455 Sami, following the instructions at 494.
806.81 Initiation of business
enterprises devoted to literature
is built from 8 Literature (i.e.,
800, minus its final placeholder zeros, which disappear when further notation
is added) plus T1—0681
Organization and financial management (“including
. . . initiation of business enterprises”).
604.87 People with physical disabilities
in technology is built
from 604.8 History and description with
respect to kinds of persons, a displaced standard subdivision T1—08 (displaced from 608, as indicated by
the note “Do not use for history and description of technology with respect to
kinds of persons; class in 604.8”), plus 7
with disabilities and illnesses (“Class here persons with physical
disabilities”), following the instructions at 604.8.
229.09 Geography, history, chronology,
persons in the Apocrypha is built from 229 Apocrypha, pseudepigrapha, intertestamental works plus 09 Geography, history, chronology, personsfrom the add table under 221-229 Specific parts of Bible, Apocrypha, pseudepigrapha, intertestamental works, as instructed at 229, where the instruction is given that subdivisions can be added for Apocrypha alone.
345.87 Criminal law of Venezuela is built from 345
Criminal law plus T2—87 Venezuela, following the instructions at 345.3–345.9 Specific jurisdictions and
The night life of a Dewey editor has its moments. From time to time I have awakened to the
realization that I had been dreaming a blog, or Weekly List (LCSH-to-DDC) mappings,
or an expansion. (In my first week or
two here, I dreamed I had been asked to work on developing a standard
subdivision for things! Joan’s comment,
after a pause that perhaps masked concern that I might actually think that
possible, was simply, “Massive dual provision.” Duh.) A
few days ago I awakened and realized I had been dreaming Dewey in the context
of doing a crossword puzzle. After a few
seconds’ amusement, I thought, “Why not?” So, draw yourself a five-by-five grid, and have fun! Answers and explanations will be posted next week.
Unless indicated otherwise, numbers come from DDC 22. Decimal points are omitted from all numbers;
all numbers are five digits. And just to
keep things a little more interesting, one number is drawn from each of the main
classes, except one (since 1 down and 1 across necessarily come from the same
ACROSS 1 Superconductivity 2 General classification schemes 3 Sami 4 Initiation of business enterprises devoted to literature 5 Crossword puzzles (abridged)
DOWN 1 People with physical disabilities in technology 2 Geography, history, chronology, persons in the Apocrypha 3 Dreams 4 Criminal law of Venezuela 5 Mechanical wave theory
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