“Neanderthal Genes ‘Survive in Us’” is the emphasis of a BBC article about research done by the Neanderthal Genome Project at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. The research was reported in the 7 May 2010 issue of Science under the title “A Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome.” Here is the abstract:
Neandertals, the closest evolutionary relatives of present-day humans, lived in large parts of Europe and western Asia before disappearing 30,000 years ago. We present a draft sequence of the Neandertal genome composed of more than 4 billion nucleotides from three individuals. Comparisons of the Neandertal genome to the genomes of five present-day humans from different parts of the world identify a number of genomic regions that may have been affected by positive selection in ancestral modern humans, including genes involved in metabolism and in cognitive and skeletal development. We show that Neandertals shared more genetic variants with present-day humans in Eurasia than with present-day humans in sub-Saharan Africa, suggesting that gene flow from Neandertals into the ancestors of non-Africans occurred before the divergence of Eurasian groups from each other.
The Science web site has a “Special Feature: The Neandertal Genome” in connection with the research article. The Smithsonian Institution is updating its “Ancient DNA and Neanderthals” based on the new results.
The interdisciplinary number for Neanderthals is 569.986 Neanderthals, as shown by the unsubdivided Relative Index entry:
In the upward hierarchy of 569.986 are 569.98 Homo sapiens, 569 Fossil Mammalia, and 560 Paleontology Paleozoology. Examples of works classed in 569.986 Neanderthals are Neandertals: A Prehistoric Puzzle, The Humans Who Went Extinct: Why Neanderthals Died Out and We Survived, and Neanderthals Revisited: New Approaches and Perspectives.
A work about the Neanderthal genome would also be classed in 569.986 Neanderthals (in standing room). How does a classifier learn that?
One approach would be to browse the Relative Index for “genetics”:
see Manual at 576.5 vs. 572.8
Genetics--animal husbandry 636.0821
Genetics--animal husbandry--sheep 636.30821
A classifier who takes this approach might look at 599.935 Genetics, which has in its upward hierarchy 599.93 Genetics, sex and age characteristics, evolution and 599.9 Hominidae Homo sapiens. At 599.9 is the see reference; “For prehistoric Hominidae, see 569.9.” Since a see reference has hierarchical force, genetics of prehistoric Hominidae, including Neanderthals, cannot be classed in 599.935. Since prehistoric Hominidae are excluded from 599.935 Genetics, the following see reference at 599.935 does not apply to Neanderthals: “For biochemical genetics, see 611.01816.”
Comprehensive works on the genetics of prehistoric Hominidae and modern humans, however, can be classed in 599.935, along with consideration of modern humans’ genetic inheritance from prehistoric ancestors. An example is Reflections of Our Past: How Human History Is Revealed in Our Genes.
A classifier might take another approach, and browse the Relative Index for “genomes”:
The number 611.018166 DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid), which has 610 Medicine and health in its upward hierarchy, applies only to modern humans. The interdisciplinary number for genomes, 572.86 DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid), has the class-here note: “Class here chromosomal DNA, codons, genes, genomes.” While it is possible to add to 572.86 to specify kind of organism (via the add table at 572.5–572.8 Specific biochemicals and biochemical genetics, which has instructions for adding notation from 571 Physiology and related subjects and ultimately from 590 Animals), no provision has been given for adding notation from the 560s to specify prehistoric organisms. At 570 Life sciences is the see reference “For paleontology, see 560,” and there is no see reference in the 560s sending biochemical genetics of prehistoric organisms back to 572.8 Biochemical genetics.
For additional information about classifying genomes, see the earlier blog “Cattle Genome.”