As noted in a recent post, over the past several months we have incorporated a number of changes in Table 4 Subdivisions of Individual Languages and Language Families and 400 Language into WebDewey. This entry addresses changes announced in the December 2009 New and Changed Entries (in Word and PDF formats), which focused on new entries for languages for special purposes, translating materials on specific subjects, translating literature (belles-lettres) and rhetoric, translating literature from a specific language, and translating specific forms of literature. The changes are given there only in the context of Table 4; parallel changes have also been made in the 400s, as can be seen in WebDewey and Abridged WebDewey.
Table 4 begins with a set of modifications to standard subdivisions, including (1) several extensions to the meaning of standard subdivisions (e.g., the addition of an including note for language acquisition, speech errors, a class-here note for psycholinguistics, and a scatter class-elsewhere note at –019 Psychological principles), (2) the displacement of several standard subdivision concepts to other notation (e.g., the do-not-use note at –03 Encyclopedias and concordances pertaining to dictionaries of standard form of language, which are to be classed instead in –3 Dictionaries of the standard form of the language), and (3) a few expansions (e.g., –042 Bilingualism, which does not occur in Table 1). Most of the expansions involve adding further subdivisions under –014 Language and communication. The newest of these is –0147 Languages for special purposes (also known as LSPs or sublanguages). LSPs are languages that are used in specific contexts, often restricted by subject matter and/or level of expertise (e.g., the languages of medicine, law, advertising, broadcasting).
Note that there is no expansion for LSPs in Table 1 Standard Subdivisions. Therefore, a work like The language of medicine, its evolution, structure, and dynamics should continue to be classed in 610.14 Language of medicine (built with 61 Medicine plus notation 014 Language and communication from Table 1; the placeholder zero at the end of 610 is dropped before the standard subdivision is added), not in 610.147, since Table 4 notation is not used in this context. Nor is there a need for an equivalent expansion here: the class number 610.14 already adequately expresses the concept “language of medicine.” The use of T4—0147 is restricted to contexts where the base notation represents a language or family of languages and a note specifically authorizing addition of notation from Table 4 or specifically authorizing use of notation from Table 1 “as modified under” Table 4 exists. An example is Fachsprachen in der Romania. Fachsprachen is the German term for languages for special purposes, while in linguistics, der Romania refers to areas in which Romance languages are spoken (incidentally, because der Romania has a special meaning in the field of linguistics, this expression belongs to an LSP). The appropriate number for this work is 440.0147 Languages for special purposes of Romance languages (built with 44 Romance languages plus 0 (standard subdivisions for Romance languages use two zeros, while standard subdivisions for French use one) plus notation 0147 Languages for special purposes from Table 4 ; the placeholder zero at the end of 440 is dropped before the expanded standard subdivision is added). The use of notation 0147 from Table 4 is authorized by the note at 440.01–440.03 Standard subdivisions of Romance languages: “Notation from Table 1 as modified under T4—01–T4—03 in Table 4, e.g., semantics of Romance languages 440.0143.” Notation T4—0147 is not expected to be used nearly as often as 401.47, its counterpart in the modified standard subdivisions at 401–409; 401.47 would be used for LSPs generally. Examples of works that should be classed in 401.47 Languages for special purposes include Sublanguage: Studies of language in restricted semantic domains and Fachsprachen: ein internationales Handbuch zur Fachsprachenforschung und Terminologiewissenschaft = Languages for special purposes: An international handbook of special-language and terminology research.
In the past there has been only a single class in Table 4 and a single class in the 400s (T4—802 / 418.02) for translating and interpreting. New entries have now been added for T4—803 / 418.03 Translating materials on specific subjects, T4—804 / 418.04 Translating literature (belles-lettres) and rhetoric, T4—80402–T4—80409 Translating literature from a specific language (there is no 418 equivalent, since a specific language is involved), and T4—8041–T4—8048 / 418.041–418.048 Translating specific forms of literature. With regard to Table 4, all of these numbers follow a common pattern of using the base number for the language being translated into if the work is about translating into a specific language, the base number for the language being translated from if the work is about translating from a specific language into many languages, or the base number for the language coming later in 420–490 if the work is about translating in both directions between two languages. (If the work is about translating from many languages into many languages, then a subdivision under 418 would be the appropriate choice.)
In the case of T4—802, notation from Table 6 Languages is added to express the language being translated from if the work is about translating from one language into one language or to express the language coming earlier in 420–490 if the work is about translating in both directions between two languages. Table 6 notation is not added if the work is about translating from one language into many languages or from many languages into many languages; under no circumstances would Table 6 notation be added to 418.02. For example, the work Structure of Meaning (SOM): Towards a three-dimensional perspective on translating between Chinese and English should be classed in 495.180221 Translating between Chinese and English (built with 495.1 Chinese [between English and Chinese, the language appearing later in 420–490] plus notation 802 Translating to and from other languages from Table 4 plus notation 21 English from Table 6).
In the case of T4—803 / 418.03, three-digit notation from 001–999 is added to express the subject. However, fewer than three digits would be added if the number includes a zero that is not in initial position (the instruction reads “but stop before any zero that follows a non-zero number”). These restrictions (three-digit notation; zeros only in initial position) are necessary to ensure that a specific number will not have more than one interpretation, since it is possible to add further notation from Table 6 to express the language translated from. By way of example, the work Translation and medicine would be classed in 418.0361 Translating medical materials (built with 418.03 Translating materials on specific subjects plus 61 from 610 Medicine).
In the case of T4—80402–T4—80409, notation from Table 6 is added to express the specific language the literature is translated from. For example, the work The Chinese translation of Russian literature: three studies should be classed in 495.180409171 Translating Russian literature into Chinese (built with 495.1 Chinese [the literature translated into] plus notation 8040 Translating literature from a specific language from Table 4 plus notation 9171 Russian from Table 6).
In the case of T4—8041–T4—8048 / 418.041–418.048, one-digit notation from Table 3B is added to express the literary form being translated. For example, the work Advanced translation from Russian prose, which concerns translating Russian prose into English, should be classed in 428.04809171 Translating miscellaneous writings from Russian to English (built with 42 English plus notation 804 Translating specific forms of literature from Table 4 plus notation 8 Miscellaneous writings, representing notation 808 Prose literature from Table 3B, plus 0, following the instruction at T4—8041–T4—8048, plus notation 9171 Russian from Table 6).