The eyespots on the wings of butterflies and moths are intended to be conspicuous to predators, not to resemble the eyes of larger animals, a new study found. . . .
The authors concluded that the visual “loudness” of the markings startle or frighten the predator into avoiding spotted prey.
The vivid colours of coral reef fishes represent a ‘language’ that dates back at least 50 million years but is still baffling to humans in many respects, a leading fish expert concedes today. . . .
Fossil specimens of reef fish from Monte Bolca, Italy, studied by Prof. Bellwood reveal that even as far back as 50 million years ago fish were spotted, striped and probably highly coloured also.
Fish colour appears to communicate both information - useful for finding mates and advertising status in the pecking order - and disinformation, intended to mislead predators and competitors. But there is no easy explanation for the rainbow displays of the most spectacularly brilliant reef fish, he says.
Comprehensive works on color in animals are classed in 591.472 Camouflage and color, e.g., Amazing Animal Colors and Animal Dazzlers: The Role of Brilliant Colors in Nature.
Works on color in moths are classed in 595.781472 Camouflage and color in Lepidoptera (built with 595.78 Lepidoptera, which has the note “Class here moths,” plus 1 General topics of natural history of animals from the add table under 592-599 Specific taxonomic groups of animals, following the add footnote at 595.78: “Add as instructed under 592-599,” plus 472 from 591.472 Camouflage and color, as instructed at 1 in the add table under 592-599). Works on color in butterflies are classed in 595.7891472 Camouflage and color in Papilionoidea (Butterflies) (built with 595.789 Butterflies plus 1 from the add table under 592-599 plus 472 from 591.472 Camouflage and color).
The ARC Centre study appears not to focus on one taxonomic group of fishes. If that is correct, we can begin with 597 Cold-blooded vertebrates Pisces (Fishes), which has the footnote to add as instructed under 592-599. Since 597 has a dual heading, we can focus henceforth on the second and narrower part of the heading: Pisces (Fishes). WebDewey has a built number 597.17789 Coral fishes (built with 597 plus 1 from the add table under 592-599 plus 7 from 591.7 Animal ecology, animals characteristic of specific environments plus 789 from 577.789 Reef ecology, which has the note: “Class here coral reef ecology”). In the table of preference under 591 Specific topics in natural history of animals, however, 591.4 Physical adaptation appears above 591.7 Animal ecology, animals characteristic of specific environments. Consequently, for color in coral reef fishes we must begin with 597.1472 Camouflage and color in Pisces (Fishes) (built with 597 plus 1 from the add table under 592-599 plus 472 from 591.472 Camouflage and color). The 591.472 entry has the note “Subdivisions are added for either or both topics in heading” and the footnote “Add standard subdivisions as instructed under 591.” The add table under 591 Specific topics in natural history of animals indicates that Table 1 notation 09 Historical, geographic, persons treatment is regular, with one zero. The final number is 597.147209142 Camouflage and color in coral reef fishes (built with 597.1472 plus T1—09 Geographic treatment plus T2—142 Islands, which has the note: “Including atolls, coral reefs”).
A work about color in one of the specific coral reef fishes mentioned in the ARC Centre study would be classed with the specific fish, e.g., gobies or parrotfishes in 597.7 Perciformes, where they are mentioned in the including note, and marine butterfly fishes or damselfishes in 597.72 Percoidea, where they are mentioned in the including note. Because these specific kinds of fishes are mentioned in including notes, no further addition is possible.