In a 2008 review article in the Communications of the ACM entitled "The Many Facets of Natural Computing" (vol. 51, no. 10, pp. 72-83; fuller version here), Lila Kari and Grzegorz Rozenberg characterize natural computing as “a highly interdisciplinary field that connects the natural sciences with computing science,” “the field of research that investigates models and computational techniques inspired by nature and . . . attempts to understand the world around us in terms of information processing.” Major strands of natural computing include (1) computational techniques that are inspired by natural phenomena, (2) computing paradigms implemented with natural materials, and (3) information processing that takes place in nature. The field has been developing and expanding for over 20 years; its literature is vast; and many dedicated conferences take place every year.
Although the DDC had not previously provided for natural computing as an integrated field of research, many of its topics had long been recognized, in many cases having been mapped to 006.3 Artificial intelligence or its subdivisions. While close ties exist between artificial intelligence and natural computing, neither is included within the other. Hence, with the expansion for natural computing at 006.38, the caption at 006.3 became Artificial intelligence and natural computing. An example of literature that should be classed at 006.38 Natural computing is Handbook of natural computing. (Because this expansion is recent, we cannot yet point to representative literature classed in all the new numbers; in some cases, we rely instead on clear cases of literature that would be classed in that number if they were being classified today.)
The development under 006.38 consists of two branches, 006.382 Nature-inspired models and techniques of computation and 006.384 Computing with natural materials, corresponding to the first two strands of natural computing noted above, respectively.
Examples of works (to be) classed in the first branch include the following:
Examples of works (to be) classed in the second branch include the following:
The literature for the third strand of natural computing—information processing in nature—is more biologically-oriented than computationally- oriented. Accordingly, the class-here note at 570 Biology reads “Class here life sciences, information processing in nature.” A scatter-see reference there gives the following instructions to the classifier: “For information processing associated with a specific natural phenomenon, see the phenomenon, e.g., cellular computing 571.6, gene regulatory networks 572.865.” Therefore, The regulatory genome: gene regulatory networks in development and evolution is classed at 572.865 Gene expression (“Class here genetic regulation, regulation of gene expression”).
Posted by Rebecca at 04:00 PM in 000-099 Computer science, information & general works | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)
(See previous post Fiction Finder and Dewey, Part 1, for background information about Fiction Finder. Search results reflect searches done June 18, 2014, with the underlying database current through April; results may change as the database is updated.)
In Fiction Finder, "Place" is usually where the story is set, and many authors write about places not their home. For example, an Advanced Search under "Place" for Italy retrieves 8956 records, but none of the first ten records is for a work by an Italian author; seven are by Shakespeare (e.g., The Tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice), and the others are by Henry James, Laurence Sterne, and E.M. Forster. A user who seeks fiction set in Italy by Italian authors will have to go to record 19 in the set to find it: The Name of the Rose, by Umberto Eco. Here is the start of the full record.
Clicking the Dewey number in that record (853.914 Italian fiction--1945-1999) retrieves 4839 records for works originally written in Italian—many of them set in Italy, e.g., The Leopard, by Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa. Here is the start of the full record.
To broaden the range of Italian literature to include all literary periods and to focus on works set in Italy, one can truncate the Dewey number and search under "Dewey" for 85* and under "Place" for Italy; 1180 records are retrieved. One can then narrow the search by selecting from the "Genre" list at the left. For example, one user might select "Short stories," retrieve a set of 11 records, and choose Rome Tales: Stories. Here is the start of the full record.
Another user, faced with 1180 records, might choose "Detective and mystery stories" and retrieve 47 records. Nine of the first ten records are for works by Andrea Camilleri, e.g., Rounding the Mark. Here is the start of the full record.
Let’s try another place: Ireland. An Advanced Search under "Place" for Ireland retrieves 7391 records. Two of the first ten records are for works by American authors, e.g., The Death of an Irish Sinner: A Peter McGarr Mystery by Bartholomew Gill, classed in 813.54 American fiction--1945-1999), and eight are for works by Irish authors writing in English, e.g., Tara Road, by Maeve Binchy. Here is the start of the full record.
The standard Dewey number for works by an individual author writing in English (e.g., 823.914 English fiction--1945-1999) does not indicate whether the author is Irish. In this context, what is a quick way for a user to find out? In the full record, the user can click the cover art to go to the corresponding record in WorldCat.org, scroll down in that record and click to "find more information about" the author—in other words, go to the WorldCat Identities page for the author, e.g., for Maeve Binchy—and if appropriate, scroll down to find the "Useful Links" to the Library of Congress Authority File record and the Wikipedia article for the author.
How can a user of Fiction Finder find works written originally in Irish Gaelic, if the user doesn’t have in mind a specific author or title, and doesn’t know the Dewey number? (Note: Dewey numbers are searchable in Fiction Finder, but not their captions; the captions are displayed only to explain the meaning of the Dewey numbers.) An Advanced Search under "Language" for Irish and under "Place" for Ireland retrieves 364 records—many of them not originally written in Irish, but having at least one edition translated into Irish. (The Editions section of a full record has information about specific editions and their languages.) The tenth record in the set of 364 is in Irish, An béal boċt; : nó, An milleánach. Droċ-sgéal ar an droċṡaoġal curta i n-eagar le Myles na gCopaleen. Here is the start of the full record.
The listed editions are all in English, but the edition details say "translated from the Irish by Gearailt Mac Eoin."
(Note: Information about Fiction Finder was supplied by Diane Vizine-Goetz, Senior Research Scientist, OCLC Research. She has pointed out that OCLC Research is currently working to improve FRBR clustering with respect to translations, and the results will be reflected in Fiction Finder and other works-based applications. See "OCLC Research Launches Multilingual Bibliographic Structure Activity" and "Multilingual Bibliographic Structure.")
Meeting 137 of the Decimal Classification Editorial Policy Committee (EPC) took place last week at OCLC headquarters in Dublin, OH.
The agenda included proposals related to the display of history notes, as well as the display of period tables in the 890s, both driven by the user experience in WebDewey. Several proposals were approved to clarify actions already intended or allowed: (1) the use of T1—028 Auxiliary techniques and procedures; apparatus, equipment, materials to express 3D printing applications; (2) the interpretation of regional groups in Table 5 to mean regional groups viewed as a whole population, as if they were national groups; (3) the ability to add notation T1—0901–0905 Historical periods to 930-990: 004 Ethnic and national groups, when appropriate; and (4) the classification of personal bibliographies for people associated with a subject in 016 Bibliographies and catalogs of works on specific subjects. Other proposals that were approved include updates to the classification in Table 2 for Peru and Greece; provision under 306.44 Language to add Table 6 notation; regularization of T1—08 Groups of people treatment under 346.013 Capacity and status of persons; expansions in Table 4 and the 400s for schools, theories, methodologies of linguistics; thorough updating of developments for land vehicles in transportation’s 388.34 Vehicles and engineering’s 629.22 Types of vehicles; and updates in the 900s to untangle the new archaeology developments from historical periods for several regions.
Two areas in which EPC has considered proposals over the course of multiple meetings—weapons and angiosperms—were also represented at Meeting 137. The next step for weapons will be a completely worked out proposal for EPC review and approval. The next step for angiosperms is also a fully developed proposal; here we are proposing to adopt a new taxonomic basis. Expect to hear more about both of these areas.
The committee considered discussion papers on the law of indigenous peoples, medieval European law, and Native American topics, all of which will return to EPC as full-blown proposals.
The committee had a wide-ranging discussion on Dewey’s value as an international standard for knowledge organization; as such, it can be leveraged into a variety of products, not only for classification, but also for knowledge discovery. The meeting also included presentations on a new website for the Dewey Section at the Library of Congress (coming soon to a screen near you!—we’ll keep you posted on its availability), Fiction Finder, topic enhancement of the DDC, and synonym management in the Relative Index.
One follow-up electronic meeting has been scheduled for September 2014. Meeting 137A will consider updated exhibits on the possibility of base numbers in add instructions ending in 0, computer science updates, digital collections, local church, 21st century art styles, winter sports, and the treatment and display of numbers for comprehensive and interdisciplinary works. The next face-to-face meeting of EPC—Meeting 138—will again be held at OCLC headquarters in Dublin, Ohio, and is presently scheduled for 8-9 June 2015.
"Fiction Finder is a works-based based application that provides access to millions of works of fiction described in WorldCat records for books, eBooks, audio books, movies and television. You can search by person, place, topic, genre, character, Dewey and more." Fiction Finder was developed by OCLC Research.
As a hidden part of Fiction Finder, DDC has been used in processing the database to pull in a broad range of stories of imagined events, including folk tales, graphic novels, films, and television, in addition to novels, short stories, drama, and narrative poetry. For information about DDC and broadening Fiction Finder beyond textual novels and short stories, see the previous blog post "Improved Access to Fiction" and the conference paper "Finding Fiction: Facilitating Access to Works of the Imagination Scattered by Form and Format" (2006).1
As with Cookbook Finder, DDC numbers have recently been made visible, with assignable numbers from DDC 23 (including built numbers) appearing with captions in detailed-record displays. To search by Dewey number, click the class number in the detailed record. Or, if you know the DDC number you want, you can enter the number directly, using the drop-down menu in Advanced Search. You can use the question mark (?) as a character masking symbol (to stand for a single character in your search) or use the asterisk (*) for left or right truncation. (These Advanced-Search features are newly available also in Cookbook Finder.)
As in the WorldCat database from which Fiction Finder is derived, not every record has a DDC number. A DDC number displayed and searchable in the Fiction Finder database may be short because an abridged number was assigned originally. Or a WorldCat record may have a full built number, but Fiction Finder may give a shorter number because Fiction Finder gives only as much of a built number as can be found in the DDC 23 database (from which WebDewey is derived). Why? Fiction Finder needs to be able to display a caption from the DDC 23 database with the number. Indeed, Fiction Finder shows only numbers and captions that match a schedule or built number in DDC 23 even if the number taken from the WorldCat database was assigned from another edition; that introduces inconsistencies when there have been relocations or discontinuations. Nevertheless, the shorter or inconsistent numbers can still be useful for access, especially in combination with the many other elements available for searching in Fiction Finder.
Search results reported here reflect searches done on May 16, 2014; results may change as the database is updated.
To sample folk literature, let’s begin by using Advanced Search to do a title search for "Cinderella" (retrieves 886 records). The first record retrieved, Cinderella, has 398.2 Folk literature. Here is the start of the record:
A user who wants to branch out and consider other folk tales can click 398.2 (retrieves 3654 records) and look at the record for, e.g., Stone Soup: An Old Tale:
Another user, in response to the original title search for Cinderella, might select the third record retrieved. (The second record has no DDC number.) The third record, Cinderella, has 791.4372 Single films. Here is the start of the record:
Clicking 791.4372 retrieves 20761 records, with a variety of popular and classic films at the top of the list. Clicking in the column at the left under "Genre" to limit to animated films retrieves 695 records. Among the first ten is another film from Disney about a legendary character: Mulan.
A title search for "Mulan" (retrieves 76 records) has among the first ten records a book version, Mulan Saves the Day, with the DDC number 398.2095102 Persons (Individuals)—folklore—China (built with 398.209 History, geographic treatment, biography of folk literature plus T2—51 China, as instructed at 398.2093-398.2099 Specific continents, countries, localities, plus 0, as instructed at 398.2093-398.2099:01-08 Tales and lore on a specific topic, plus 2 from 398.22 Tales and lore of persons without paranormal powers, also as instructed at 398.2093-398.2099:01-08 Tales and lore on a specific topic). (Note: In WebDewey the add note at 398.2093-398.2099:01-08 has been corrected to begin: "Add to 0 . . . . ") Here is the start of the record for Mulan Saves the Day:
Clicking 398.2095102 retrieves 12 records, including The Lost Horse: A Chinese Folktale and Ling-Li and the Phoenix Fairy: A Chinese Folktale.
A search for 398.2095* (using Dewey in the drop-down menu) retrieves 16 records, including The Hungry Coat: A Tale from Turkey, classed in 398.20956102 Persons (Individuals)—folklore—Turkey (built with T2—561 Turkey), and The Patient Stone: A Persian Love Story, classed in 398.2095502 Persons (Individuals)—folklore—Iran (built with T2—55 Iran).
None of the 16 records, however, has been built with T2—52 Japan, because the DDC 23 database does not include a 398.209+ number built with T2—52 Japan. (Of course, the add note at 398.2093-398.2099 Specific continents, countries, localities allows classifiers to build 398.20952+ but the already-built number is not in the DDC 23 database and thus there is no caption for Fiction Finder to display.) A search for Dewey 398.209* retrieves 2109 records. Many of those records have only 398.209 History, geographic treatment, biography, because that is all that matches numbers in the DDC 23 database. One way to identify some Japanese folk literature in that set of 2109 records is to search for Dewey 398.209 and Place Japan (if we did not already know that 398.20952+ is missing, we could search for Dewey 398.209* and Place Japan):
A searcher who wants to cast a wider net and further reduce the impact of inconsistencies in the DDC numbers taken from the WorldCat database can truncate the DDC number further, e.g., by searching for Dewey 398.2* and Place Japan; that search retrieves 132 records.
(Note: Information about Fiction Finder was supplied by Diane Vizine-Goetz, Senior Research Scientist, OCLC Research.)
1Beall, Julianne and Diane Vizine-Goetz. 2006. "Finding Fiction: Facilitating Access to Works of the Imagination Scattered by Form and Format." In Knowledge Organization for a Global Learning Society: Proceedings of the Ninth International ISKO Conference (Vienna, Austria, July 4-7, 2006), edited by G. Budin, C. Swertz, and K. Mitgutsch, 295-301. Advances in Knowledge Organization, no. 10. Würzburg: Ergon.
Our crystal ball was a little hazy back in 2008 when we introduced an expansion under 004.16 Personal computers (004.167) and made its caption Handheld computing devices. We were thinking that size would be the defining element that separated this new class from other personal computers. On the basis of size—indeed, the size that could be comfortably held in one hand—we restricted the use of 004.167 Handheld computing devices to the likes of smart phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), palmtop computers, and pocket computers, while 004.16 Personal computers retained tablets, notebook computers, and laptops. But, alas, it did not take long before questions started to arise. Shouldn’t tablets be in 004.167? Well, what about phablets? Clearly classifiers’ intuitions drew the line between 004.16 and 004.167 in a different place than what had been set out in the DDC itself. A mere handful of years later--i.e., NOW--the defining element for the re-captioned 004.167 Mobile computing devices is portability (which, of course, is related to size, but provides a more pragmatic dividing line). So the question is no longer whether the device can be comfortably held in one hand, but can it be easily carried from one location to another. Being mobile also implies the use of wireless technologies. Redefining the dividing line between 004.16 and 004.167 means that all of the following are now part of 004.167 (in addition to the devices that were part of 004.167 to start with): e-book readers, phablets, tablets, (most) laptops, notebooks, wearable computers. In theory, the dividing line is still somewhat a fine one. A laptop that is a desktop replacement should be classed in 004.16; alternatively, any laptop that is merely “luggable” should be classed in 004.16. Only laptops that are truly mobile (but this applies to most laptops today) should be classed in 004.167. However, since we don’t find literature in WorldCat for desktop replacement laptops, the fine-dividing-line issue appears to be moot.
Here are examples of 004.16 devices:
Here are examples of 004.167 devices:
Attribution for 004.16 device images (in left-to-right order):
Attribution for 004.167 device images (in left-to-right, top-to-bottom order):
Posted by Rebecca at 12:18 PM in 000-099 Computer science, information & general works | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack (0)
First, the bad news: Readers of the Dewey blog the world over will understand how much we hate to make the following announcement: Julianne Beall is retiring from her position as an assistant editor of the Dewey Decimal Classification; today is her last day.
Juli has served as an assistant editor of the DDC since 1986. If my mental calculator does not fail me, that's 28 years and 4 editions (Editions 20–23: full + abridged + corresponding separates; Juli’s editorial work actually started with the 004–006 separate associated with Edition 19). During that time Juli has worked on the classification in many areas, including Tables 3, 4, 5, and 6; the 000s, 100s, 200s, 400s, and 800s; 330, 340, 610, and 650-680; she has also worked on parts of 360, 380, 640, and 740. (OK—so it would have been easier to list the areas she hasn't worked in.) For the 9 years before being named an assistant editor, Juli worked as a classifier in the Decimal Classification Division (now Dewey Program) at the Library of Congress—excellent preparation for her editorial work.
When I asked Juli some years ago which aspect of her work she liked the best, she noted that she liked it all, but that her favorite work involved DDC translations (and translators). She has worked closely with the Arabic, French, German, Italian, Norwegian, Spanish, Swedish, and Vietnamese translations. The Vietnamese translation is not only the last in that list alphabetically, but also the last in the list chronologically.
Juli has also been instrumental in shaping the development of all of the electronic versions of the DDC: Electronic Dewey, Dewey for Windows, and WebDewey, now in its second incarnation. For example, with WebDewey 2.0, she has been a tireless tester of the number-building tool and has often contributed posts in this blog with screenshots showing how to build complex built numbers, most recently her post on Crimean Tatars. (And while on the subject of the Dewey blog, Juli has been our most consistent blogger.)
Many of you know Juli from her engagement with you at various meetings and workshops-- conferences of the American Library Association (ALA) and Special Libraries Association (SLA) here in the United States, meetings of the European Dewey Users Group in (duh!) Europe, and IFLA conferences around the world. She has given countless presentations at Dewey breakfasts at ALA and (initially) Dewey Translators Meetings / (now) International Dewey Users Meetings at IFLA.
But now the good news: Juli is coming back to us, starting tomorrow, on a half-time basis. We have already been forewarned that we will lose her to month(s)-long forays abroad with her husband, but we are so relieved to know she isn’t just walking out the door.
We know you join us in offering Juli our warmest wishes on her retirement and our thanks for the many significant contributions she has made to the DDC over the span of an extraordinary career. Congratulations, Juli!
We love it, of course, when the DDC gets a shout-out—particularly when reference to it reflects how widely known it is and even more so when someone recognizes its usefulness. Such is the case in Nate Silver’s blog posting, "What the Fox Knows." The shout-out to Dewey comes after Silver notes that the way he organizes the collection of ca. 500 books in his office—by color!—isn’t scalable:
But what if instead of having 500 books, I had 50,000, or 50 million? At that point, I’d need a more rigorous approach toward classifying the books — alphabetical order, or the Dewey decimal system, or whatever else. Otherwise, I might spend hours trying to find my copy of "What It Takes."
The DDC is right up there with alphabetic order, which is pretty heady stuff. But come to think about it—and we’re sure Silver would have said so if he had thought about it—Dewey is better than alphabetic order in a large number of contexts. While alphabetic order is great for finding the single volume whose title you know (and remember accurately), it doesn’t help you find related works; their titles are likely to be scattered across the alphabet. Author/title alphabetic order is only a little better. But look up the title in a catalog, find its Dewey number, and that number will find related works. Or, if you don’t know any title on the subject of interest, search in the catalog for title keywords or subject headings, find a relevant title, then use its Dewey number to find related works. Or look up the subject in the Relative Index (and verify its relevance in the schedules), and you are way ahead of what alphabetic order can do for you. In a collection of 50 million, there are likely to be works in more than one language, and you may wish to share them with people who have different mother tongues; Dewey numbers are good at crossing linguistic boundaries, especially since the Relative Index and schedules have been translated into many languages.
For the record, the Dewey number for What it takes: the way to the White House is 324.9730927 Elections -- United States -- 1981–1989. Searching on that number in WorldCat retrieves 249 records. Limiting the search to those on the 1988 election, which is the focus of What it takes, retrieves 102 records, including, for example, Whose broad stripes and bright stars?: the trivial pursuit of the presidency, 1988, which might not be so very far away in an alphabetically-organized collection (depending on its size), and Almanac of 1988 presidential politics : a political junkie's handbook of the 1988 campaign year--the candidates, campaigns, polls, schedules, dollars, debates, advertising, and chronology--the best, the worst, the laughs, the gaffes, which would be far distant. The number 324.9730927 is built using the add instructions at 324.91–324.99 Geographic treatment of elections, which tell us to "add to base number 324.9 notation 1–9 from Table 2 . . .; then to the result add historical period numbers from appropriate subdivisions of 930–990 . . . . In all cases use one 0 except 00 for North America and South America." Therefore to 324.9, we add notation T2—73 United States, plus 0 (the exception for North and South America does not apply to individual countries within North and South America), plus notation 927 from 973.927 Administration of Ronald Reagan, 1981–1989.
Crimean Tatars have been in the news recently, e.g., in the Guardian article "Crimea's Tatars Fear the Worst as it Prepares for Referendum." The UNPO (Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization) site has information about Crimean Tatars.
An example of a history book about the Crimean Tatars is Beyond Memory: The Crimean Tatars' Deportation and Return. The book is classed in 947.7100494388 Crimean Tatars in Crimea.
How was that number built? At 930-990 History of specific continents, countries, localities; extraterrestrial worlds is the main add note for building history numbers: "Add to base number 9 notation T2--3-T2--9 from Table 2, e.g., general history of Europe 940, of England 942, of Norfolk, England 942.61; then add further . . . . "
Notation from Table 2 for Crimea is T2—4771 Crimea province (Krymskai͡a oblastʹ).
In the add table under 930-990 at notation 0041-0049 Specific ethnic and national groups is the add note: "Add to 004 notation T5--1-T5--9 from Table 5, e.g., history and civilization of North American native peoples in New York 974.700497."
Notation from Table 5 for Crimean Tatars is T5—94388 Crimean Tatars.
See also earlier blog post about building numbers for history of Ukraine.
A work that emphasizes the interaction of nationalism and migration in shaping group identity is The Crimean Tatars: The Diaspora Experience and the Forging of a Nation. It is classed in the number for social aspects of Crimean Tatars as an ethnic group: 305.894388 Crimean Tatars—social aspects. How was the number built? At 305.81-305.89 Specific ethnic and national groups is the add note: "Add to base number 305.8 notation T5--1-T5--9 from Table 5, e.g., comprehensive works on Jews 305.8924, Chinese 305.8951, Chinese Australians 305.8951094, Inuit 305.89712." Hence the number was built with base number 305.8 plus notation T5—94388 Crimean Tatars. The instruction at the start of Table 5 about adding zero plus area notation was not followed because the diaspora is widespread.
AP journalist Brett Zongker has brought to our attention that the World Digital Library (WDL) actively continues to expand. With the latest additions of manuscripts from the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore, the collection has surpassed the milestone of 10,000 digital items.
The reason we take special note of the WDL—that is, besides how cool it is!— is that DDC is part of the WDL metadata. Every item is assigned at least one three-digit Dewey number, and while the numbers are hidden, the captions from the Dewey summaries appear as topics—in seven languages. For details, see this presentation.
Ukraine has been on the front page of newspapers around the world; history is being made there. Some general history numbers for Ukraine from 1855 to present can be found already built in WebDewey:
How were these numbers built? The basic number for history of Ukraine has two add footnotes:
*Add as instructed under 930-990
†Add historical periods as instructed under 947.5-947.9
At 930-990 History of specific continents, countries, localities; extraterrestrial worlds is the basic instruction for building history numbers: "Add to base number 9 notation T2--3-T2--9 from Table 2, e.g., general history of Europe 940, of England 942, of Norfolk, England 942.61; then add further . . . . "
Notation from Table 2 for Ukraine is T2—477 Ukraine.
Notation for historical periods is added according to the instructions at 947.5-947.9
European countries of former Soviet Union other than Russia; Caucasus area of Russia:
"Except for modifications shown under specific entries, add to each subdivision identified by † as follows. . . . " What follows is a detailed history period table, including, e.g.,
0841 1917-1940. Hence the number 947.70841 Ukraine—1917-1940 can be built (base number 9 plus T2—477 as instructed at 930-990 plus 0841 1917-1940 as instructed at 947.5-947.9).
An example of a work classed in 947.70841 Ukraine—1917-1940 is The Holodomor Reader: A Sourcebook on the Famine of 1932-1933 in Ukraine. An example of a work classed in 947.70854 Ukraine--Periods of I͡U. V. Andropov, K. U. Chernenko, and Mikhail Sergeevich Gorbachev, 1982-1991 is Ukraine: Perestroika to Independence. The number was built with base number 9 plus T2—477 as instructed at 930-990 plus 0854 as instructed at 947.5-947.9.947.5-947.9.
Examples of works classed in 947.7086 Ukraine--1991- are Ukraine on its Meandering Path between East and West and Ukraine's Orange Revolution.
While the Olympic Games have a long and illustrious history, the specific sports included as part of the Olympics vary over time. In preparation for the publication of DDC 23, the current slate of games—both summer and winter—was reviewed and updated.
Accordingly, since our last post on the Winter Olympic Games, several events in the Winter Olympics have been given their own DDC numbers:
Examples of works for which these numbers are now appropriate—the works mentioned here pre-date the expansions—include:
Yes, I can!: the story of the Jamaican bobsled team; this work would now be classed at 796.95209227292 (built from 796.952 Bobsleigh + T1—0922 Collective biography + T2—7292 Jamaica, following the add instruction at T1—0922)
In the case of other winter Olympic sports, existing notes have been modified so that comprehensive mention of individual events is given:
796.914 Speed skating
Class here long track speed skating, short track speed skating
796.937 Freestyle skiing
Including aerial and mogul skiing; ski cross
Including big air, halfpipe, slopestyle snowboarding; snowboard cross (boardercross), parallel giant slalom racing
Class here alpine, freestyle snowboarding
Long track speed skating and short track speed skating were not given their own numbers because the literature most often treats the sport comprehensively. For example, Speed skating has chapters on each of the individual speed skating events in the winter Olympics. Similarly, the literatures on freestyle skiing and snowboarding tend to treat the sports as a whole (e.g., Freestyle skiing; Snowboarding: techniques and tricks), but some of the literature focuses on individual styles (e.g., Men's aerials & women's moguls 1; Extreme halfpipe snowboarding moves). None of these styles yet has sufficient literary warrant to justify its own number, but we’ll keep our eyes open.
Today--Friday, February 7, 2014--marks the commencement of the XXII Winter Olympic Games with a carefully orchestrated group of opening ceremonies. One of the elements of the opening ceremonies is the parade of participants, which the International Olympic Committee's factsheet describes in this manner:
Tradition dictates that the delegations parade in alphabetical order according to the language of the host country, except for Greece, which leads the parade, and the host country, which brings up the rear. . . . Each delegation is led in by its flag and a board displaying its name.
Being chosen as the flag bearer for one's country in these opening ceremonies is a great honor, the choice resulting from the vote of the team captains of each sport. Typically the flag bearer is one of the athletes competing in the games. Two exceptions stand out in the list of U.S. flag bearers: for the 1906 Intercalated Games (Summer) the U.S. flag bearer was Matthew Halpin, the team manager; for the 1928 Olympic Games (Winter) the U.S. flag bearer was none other than Godfrey Dewey, son of Melvil Dewey, and we trust you all know who he is.
And how did Godfrey Dewey end up as the U.S. flag bearer for the 1928 Olympics, held in St. Moritz, Switzerland? A Sports Illustrated article on the 1932 games reports the following:
The town [Lake Placid, N.Y.] received, in 1927, a feeler from the U.S. Olympic Committee. Would Lake Placid consider bidding for the 1932 Winter Games? No, said the city fathers, who for generations had been content to let slow enough alone. Why not? said Dr. Dewey, who was convinced that Lake Placid was already the winter sports capital of the U.S. . . .
On his own, Dr. Dewey headed off on a tour of European ski resorts—Chamonix, where the first Winter Games had been held in 1924, Gstaad, Mürren and finally St. Moritz for a live viewing of the 1928 Winter Olympics.
But again we ask: how did Godfrey Dewey end up as the U.S. flag bearer for the 1928 Olympics? The website of the U.S. Ski & Snowboard Hall of Fame and Museum (Godfrey was inducted into the Hall of Fame in 1970) provides additional insight:
Godfrey Dewey's ski sport experience won him the role of manager of the 1928 U.S. Winter Olympic Team that competed in St. Moritz, Swizterland. He was instrumental in bringing the 1932 Winter Olympic Games to Lake Placid, New York. In 1936, he wrote an article "Ski Hill Design." This article published by the National Ski Association gave the principles, profiles and tables sufficient to determine the most suitable hill for a given site and design profile with assurance that it would give the desired results. For over 65 years he was an outstanding ski sport developer for the Adirondack region which saw Nordic and alpine phases become exceptional recreational and competitive pastimes.
So we see that both U.S. flag bearers who were not athletes competing in the games were team managers.
We should note that it was under Melvil Dewey that the development of the Lake Placid Club took place. It was the Club that made Lake Placid a viable candidate for the Winter Olympics, while it was largely through Godfrey Dewey’s efforts that they actually came there. Lake Placid was also the venue for the 1980 Winter Olympics.
If you’re in an Olympics frame-of-mind, you might want to check out any of our myriad (sort of goes with Olympiad, huh?) related posts from the 2010 winter games and the 2012 summer games:
"Cookbook Finder is an experimental, works-based application that provides access to thousands of cookbooks and other works about food and nutrition described in library records. You can search by person, place, topic, course, ingredient, method, Dewey and more." Cookbook Finder was developed by OCLC Research.
Although Dewey has always been part of Cookbook Finder, it has now become visible, with assignable numbers from DDC 23 (including built numbers) appearing with captions in detailed-record displays. To search by Dewey number, click the class number in the detailed record.
Detailed records in Cookbook Finder are long, but here is the beginning of a detailed record, showing the Dewey number:
If you find a work that you want, you can click the cover art (or the cover art place holder) in the detailed record to go to the record in WorldCat.org to find the work in a library.
What is included in Cookbook Finder?
• Commercial, community, society cookbooks
• Culinary biography
• Literary cookbooks
• Popular and scholarly works on food and nutrition
What formats? Print, electronic, video, audio, etc.
With Cookbook Finder, you can type "biography" into the basic search box, and the first result will be My Life in France by Julia Child, followed by biographies of other cooks—very different from typing "biography" into the search box of WorldCat.org or a typical library OPAC!
Using Advanced Search in Cookbook Finder, you can type "desserts" in the Subject box and "Italy" in the Place box to retrieve 43 works, including Sweet Maria's Italian Desserts: Classic and Casual Recipes for Cookies, Cakes, Pastry, and Other Favorites; and Dolci Toscani: The Book of Tuscan Desserts. The detailed records display: 641.86 Desserts. A bibliographic record may have a more specific number—641.860945 or 641.8609455 (built with 641.86 Desserts plus T1—09 History, geographic treatment, biography plus T2—45 Italy or T2—455 Tuscany region)—but those built numbers are not found in the DDC 23 database (the database distributed in WebDewey). Only a number in the DDC 23 database will be displayed in Cookbook Finder, because the caption is needed to explain the number.
Among the "Related Works" listed with Sweet Maria's Italian Desserts is Sweet Maria's Italian Cookie Tray. The detailed record for that work displays 641.8654 Cookies. Among the next steps planned for the Cookbook Finder is provision of browsing based on Dewey hierarchy; that would provide another way to get from desserts to cookies.
Using Advanced Search, you can type "Italian cooking" into the Subject box to retrieve 3863 results, including Everyday Italian: 125 Simple and Delicious Recipes and Heat: An Amateur's Adventures as Kitchen Slave, Line Cook, Pasta Maker, and Apprentice to a Dante-Quoting Butcher in Tuscany. The detailed records display 641.5945 Cooking—Italy and 641.59455 Cooking--Tuscany (Italy). In these cases, the built numbers are in the database (641.59 Cooking characteristic of specific geographic environments, ethnic cooking plus T2—45 Italy or T2—455 Tuscany region).
If you click the DDC number 641.59455 in the detailed record for Heat, you get 142 results. If you are looking strictly for a cookbook, you can use the "Narrow Your Results" option at the left to limit a search to the genre "Cookbooks"; that leaves 7 results, excluding Heat but including The Tuscan Sun Cookbook: Recipes from our Italian Kitchen.
Also in the DDC 23 database are these numbers and captions:
641.59451 Cooking--Northern Italy
641.59457 Cooking--Southern Italy
641.59458 Cooking--Sicily (Italy)
These represent another opportunity for future browsing based on Dewey hierarchy.
(Note: Information about Cookbook Finder was supplied by Diane Vizine-Goetz, Senior Research Scientist, OCLC Research.)
What if you search for the full WebDewey record for a specific schedule number, and you get too many results? For example, what if you type 599 into the standard Search box on the WebDewey home screen, looking for the full record for 599 Mammalia (Mammals), and click Search?
The standard Search box in WebDewey searches all fields by default. A search for 599 in all fields yields 680 records:
If you have the time and patience to look in that set of results, you will find that the record you want is number 454.
Why so many results for an all-fields search for 599? A few of the unwanted results are caused by matches with table numbers (e.g., T2—599 Philippines), but most of the unwanted results occur because of notes that specify 592-599, especially the add footnote attached to many schedule records: "Add as instructed under 592-599."
When you stumble upon too many results, instead of looking through the long list of results, one simple response is to insert the index label "dd:" for Dewey Numbers in front of the number to override the default choice of index, then click the Search button immediately to the right of the index selection box (which still reads "All Fields") to search for dd:599
Then you retrieve three records, and the one you want is number 2:
(For a complete list of index labels, look in WebDewey Help under Search WebDewey for Search indexes. Or look at "Introduction to WebDewey 2.0" on the Dewey Training Courses site.)
Alternatively, you can get the same results as a search for dd:599 by using Advanced Search and searching for 599 in Dewey Numbers. To do that, you do not need to click Advanced Search to go to the main Advanced Search input screen; instead, you can click the pointer to the right of the index selection box that says "All Fields" and change "All Fields" to "Dewey Numbers" then click the Search button immediately to the right of that box:
Another alternative approach is to browse Dewey Numbers (with Captions). You do not need to click Browse at the top of the screen to go back to the main Browse input screen; instead, you can use the radio buttons at the left to switch from Search to Browse. The default browse field "Dewey Numbers (with Captions)" will appear in the index selection box at the right. Then you need to press <Enter> or click the Search button to the right of that box to start the browse:
With the Browse approach, the number that you want is the second number in the list (the immediately preceding number is given for context). You don’t see the Manual record for 599 in the browse results, but you can easily get to it via the See-Manual reference in the full record display for 599:
Hard to believe, but ALA Midwinter is not even a week away! The Dewey Breakfast/Update will be held on Saturday, 25 January, 7:00–8:30 a.m., Pennsylvania Convention Center, Room 120 C. (Register here.)
The program will feature presentations on new WebDewey features (like the upcoming notification feature, which will help keep users informed about classification updates); a guest presentation by Merrilee Proffitt about DDC projects currently underway at OCLC Programs and Research (like the Dewey Graph project); and Cookbook Finder, a works-based application that provides access to thousands of cookbooks and other works about food described in library records derived in part from Dewey data in Classify. We also hope that there will be some time for brainstorming and discussion; bring your pressing Dewey questions! The ALCTS Public Libraries Technical Services Interest Group will meet in the same room 8:30–10:00 a.m. directly following the Dewey Update Breakfast.
Dewey at the ALA Midwinter Exhibits
Stop by OCLC Booth 1013 to see WebDewey 2.0. The print editions of DDC 23, Abridged Edition 15, and 200 Religion Class are available at the Combined Book Exhibit Booth 719.
In the hierarchy box for the WebDewey record for 500 Natural science and mathematics, there appear at first glance to be three different entries for the number 500:
A closer look reveals that the 500 just above the entry for 500 Natural science and mathematics has the last zero grayed out, and only 50 is in blue and underlined as a link. The 500 at the top has both zeros grayed out, and only the 5 is in blue and underlined as a link. Why? The three different entries are used to display different hierarchical relationships. In the hierarchy box for the WebDewey record for 500 Natural science and mathematics shown above, the entries in the downward hierarchy all have the format 500.X: 500.2, 500.5, and 500.8. In the bar at the top of the hierarchy box, the focal notation is displayed as 500. That notation matches the notation in the 153 field of the underlying MARC record (click the MARC button to see the underlying record):
153 ## 500 $e 50 $j Natural sciences and mathematics
In the hierarchy box, click the entry just above the record for 500 Natural science and mathematics, and the downward hierarchy in the format 50X will be displayed:
In the bar at the top of the hierarchy box, the focal notation is displayed without the grayed-out zero: 50. That notation matches the notation in the underlying MARC record:
153 ## 50 $e 5 $j Science
Click the top entry inside the hierarchy box, and the downward hierarchy in the format 5X0 will be displayed:
In the bar at the top of the hierarchy box, the focal notation is displayed without the grayed-out zeros: 5. That notation matches the notation in the underlying MARC record:
153 ## 5 $j Science
Why do the two entries with grayed-out zeros have a shortened caption—Science—by comparison with the full caption for 500: Natural science and mathematics? The captions for entries with grayed-out zeros come from DDC Summaries: "The headings associated with the numbers in the summaries have been edited for browsing purposes and may not match the complete headings found in the schedules."
Like entries in DDC Summaries, the entries for numbers with grayed-out zeros have no notes, no Relative Index entries, and no mapped terminology.
What about number-span entries, e.g., 580-590 Natural history of plants and animals in the hierarchy box for 5 Science above? There are no number-span entries in DDC Summaries, and no modified headings for them. The zeros are not grayed out, and clicking that entry in the hierarchy box leads to the full record with notes.
On December 30, many of the basic course modules on the DDC training site were updated. A few of the updates correct typographical errors, while others reflect changes that occurred between Edition 22 and Edition 23 and that we failed to catch previously, or provide diacritics that were previously lost in converting from Word or PowerPoint files into PDFs.
The following files have changed:
Technical Introduction to the DDC
Exercises for Technical Introduction
Choice of Number Review
Exercises for Choice of Number Review
Number Building: Add Tables
Exercises for Number Building: Add Tables
Introduction to Table 1
Exercises for Table 1
Introduction to 000, 100, 200
Exercises for 000, 100, 200
Introduction to 300 and Table 5
Exercises for 300 and Table 5
Introduction to 400 and Tables 4 and 6
Introduction to 500
Introduction to 700
Introduction to 800 and Table 3
Exercises for 800 and Table 3
Introduction to 900 and Table 2
Exercises for 900 and Table 2
Most of the updates were made in conjunction with training preparations made by the National Library of Vietnam and by assistant editor Julianne Beall for the recent launch of the Vietnamese translation of DDC 23.
This previous posting summarizes what can be found in the various training modules and how to use them.